Discourse analysis of NSCVE and CAPs

A discourse analysis of the National Strategy to Counter Violent Extremism and County Action Plans in kenya


March 27, 2019

Research overview

The report documents the lessons learnt from P/CVE strategy development in Kenya. The fieldwork was conducted between July and October 2018. The study provides an understanding of the VE trends in Kenya, a review of the process adopted in the development of the National Strategy to Counter Violent Extremism (NSCVE) and the County Action Plans(CAPs). It also covers the interplay of the different statutes in place for VE related activities. The research adopted a discourse analysis for evaluating VE and Terrorism vis-à-vis its interpretation and implementation in the NSCVE and the CAPs.


  1. To start off, VE is not a priority issue from all the respondent categories in the counties researched, but structural conflicts that include access to, and sharing of resources, feature prominent as the main challenge for the communities. These challenges, however, supply the vulnerabilities for Violent Extremism. The report uses three county case studies to document the development of CAPs, the
    feeling of the NSCVE and the various responses seen.
  2. Where VE occurs, religion is not a crucial driver but a framer of the radicalisation and recruitment narrative.
  3. Structural issues and a conducive environment are significant for radical narrative growth. This report shows that the process of dealing with Violent Extremism should be anchored on a system thinking that considers the context, resilience capacities within the community, and a review of the various actions from all the stakeholders.
  4. Monitoring and evaluation of the national strategy and the county plans is problematic.
  5. Lack of coordination at the community level is an outcome of similar processes at the government level. The NSCVE and CAPs implementation process (in Mombasa), show lack of proper coordination based on the actions from the national government.
  6. There is a mismatch between available law and their alignment to the NSCVE and the CAPs.
  7. Terrorism and Violent Extremism are terms that are used interchangeably by government and members of the community. Their use impacts, influences and determines the target population for programs, and may not translate to CVE gains in the communities due to the limits on the context.


  1. The Theory of Change and a suggestion on the pillars to be included.
  2. Systems thinking as a proposed solution to the significant gap in the plans and the national strategy.
  3. Role definition to reduce repetition.
  4. Alignment to legal jurisprudence. (more research required).
  5. A financing proposal that adopts five pillars.
  6. A monitoring and Evaluation that concentrates on the “Centre of Influence.”